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Tree Species of the World's Boreal Forests

Herbs, Shrubs and Other Plants

GLOSSARIES
Terminology | Pictorial

   
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Douglas Fir
Pinaceae (Pine Family)

A large to very large tree with narrow, pointed crown, growing to a height of 24 - 61 m and a diameter of 0.6-1.5 m; often much larger.

Douglas Fir Description

Distinguishing Features - Needles: evergreen; spreading mostly in double rows, 2 - 3 cm long, flattened, mostly rounded at tip, flexible; dark yellow-green or blue-green; very short, twisted leafstalks. Bark: reddish-brown, very thick, deeply furrowed into broad ridges; often corky. Twigs: orange, turning brown; slender, hairy, ending in dark red, conical, pointed, scaly, hairless bud. Cones: 5 - 9 cm long; narrowly egg-shaped, light brown, short-stalked; with many thin, rounded cone-scales each above a long, protruding, three-pointed bract; paired, long-winged seeds.

Habitat

From central British Columbia south along Pacific Coast to central California; also in Rocky Mountains to Arizona; forms vast forests on moist, well-drained or rocky soils; often in pure stands or mixed coniferous forests.

Notes

The Douglas Fir is one of the world's most important timber species. It ranks first in the United States in total volume of timber, in lumber production, and in production of veneer for plywood.

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