Glossary of Forestry Terms - F

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Falldown effect a decline in timber supply or harvest level associated with the transition from harvesting the original stock of natural mature timber over one rotation to harvesting at a non declining level (typically equal to the annual increment) after conversion to a forest with a balanced age class structure.
Feller-buncher a harvesting machine that cuts a tree with shears or a saw and then piles it.
Felling and bucking the process of cutting down standing timber and then cutting it into specific lengths for yarding and hauling.
Fertilization the addition of fertilizer to promote tree growth on sites deficient in one or more soil nutrients. Also used to improve the vigor of crop trees following juvenile spacing or commercial thinning.
Fill material used to raise the desired road profile above the natural ground line.
Fill bank the fill material used to shape a road from the outer edge of the travelled portion to its intersection with the existing ground profile.
Fill-in planting planting required to supplement poorly stocked natural regeneration or to replace seedlings that have died on previously planted sites.
Fill slope the face of an embankment required to raise the desired road profile above the natural ground line.
Fine filter approach an approach to maintaining biodiversity that is directed toward particular habitats or individual species that might fall through the coarse filter. These habitats may be critical in some way and the species threatened or endangered.
Fire danger an assessment of both fixed and variable factors of the fire environment, which determine the ease of ignition, rate of spread, difficulty of control, and the fire impact.
Fire hazard the potential fire behavior for a fuel type, regardless of the fuel type's weather-influenced fuel moisture content or its resistance to fireguard construction. Assessment is based on physical fuel characteristics, such as fuel arrangement, fuel load, condition of herbaceous vegetation, and presence of elevated fuels.
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Fire impact(s) the immediately evident effect of fire on the ecosystem in terms of biophysical alterations (e.g., crown scorch, mineral soil erosion, depth of burn, fuel consumption).
Fireline that portion of the fire upon which resources are deployed and actively engaged in suppression action. In a general sense, the working area around a fire.
Fire management a substance that by chemical or physical action reduces flammability of combustibles.
Fire retardant that portion of the fire upon which resources are deployed and actively engaged in suppression action. In a general sense, the working area around a fire.
Fire risk the probability or chance of fire starting determined by the presence and activities of causative agents.
Fire season the period(s) of the year during which firs are likely to start, spread and do damage to values-at-risk sufficient to warrant organized fire suppression; a period of the year set out and commonly referred to in fire prevention legislation.
Fire suppressant an agent directly applied to burning fuels to extinguish the flaming and smoldering or glowing stages of combustion.
Fire suppression all activities concerned with controlling and extinguishing a fire following its detection. Synonymous with fire control.
Fire Weather Index (FWI) Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System.
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Firebreak See Fuelbreak.
Fireguard a strategically planned barrier, either manually or mechanically constructed, intended to stop a fire or retard its rate of spread and from which suppression action is carried out to control a fire; the constructed portion of a control line.
First order stream stream originating in a seepage zone or spring, with no entering tributaries; the most headward channels in the drainage network.
First pass he first of two or more planned entries over a specific period of time (usually one rotation) to harvest timber.
Fish-bearing waters lakes, streams, and ponds that have resident fish populations.
Fixed area plot sampling method a controlled cruise method where small plots of a fixed size are used to sample a portion of a forest area to obtain information (such as tree volume) that can be used to describe the whole area.
Flood discharge criteria the volume of flood that a bridge or culvert must be designed to accommodate.
Floodplain a level, low-lying area adjacent to streams that is periodically flooded by stream water. It includes lands at the same elevation as areas with evidence of moving water, such as active or inactive flood channels, recent fluvial soils, sediment on the ground surface or in tree bark, rafted debris, and tree scarring.
Fluvial processes all processes and events by which the configuration of a stream channel is changed; especially processes by which sediment is transferred along the stream channel by the force of flowing water.
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Foliar analysis chemical evaluation of the status of plant nutrients or the plant-nutrient requirements of a soil by the analysis of leaves or needles.
Forage grasses, herbs and small shrubs that can be used as feed for livestock or wildlife.
Ford a dip constructed in the roadbed at a stream crossing, instead of a culvert or bridge. The streambed must be of erosion-resistant material, or such material must be placed in contact with the streambed.
Forest cover forest stands or cover types consisting of a plant community made up of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together.
Forest cover map a map showing relatively homogeneous forest stands or cover types, produced from the interpretation of aerial photos and information collected in field surveys. Commonly includes information on species, age class, height class, site, and stocking level.
Forest cover type a descriptive term used to group stands of similar characteristics and species composition (due to given ecological factors) by which they may be differentiated from other groups of stands.
Forest development plan an operational plan guided by the principles of integrated resource management (the consideration of timber and non timber values), which details the logistics of timber development over a period of usually five years. Methods, schedules, and responsibilities for accessing, harvesting, renewing, and protecting the resource are set out to enable site-specific operations to proceed.
Forest Development Review Committee (FDRC) the group made up of government organizations, stakeholders, licensees, and the general public that is responsible for reviewing development plans.
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Forest ecology the relationships between forest organisms and their environment.
Forest Ecosystem Network (FEN) a planned landscape zone that serves to maintain or restore the natural connectivity within a landscape unit. A forest ecosystem network consists of a variety of fully protected areas, sensitive areas, classified areas, and old- growth management areas.
Forest fire any wildfire or prescribed fire that is burning in forest, grass, alpine or tundra vegetation types.
Forest floor layers of fresh leaf and needle litter, moderately decomposed organic matter, and humus or well-decomposed organic residue.
Forest health a forest condition that is naturally resilient to damage; characterized by biodiversity, it contains sustained habitat for timber, fish, wildlife, and humans, and meets present and future resource management objectives.
Forest health agents biotic and abiotic influences on the forest that are usually a naturally occurring component of forest ecosystems. Biotic influences include fungi, insects, plants, animals, bacteria, and nematodes. Abiotic influences include frost, snow, fire, wind, sun, drought, nutrients, and human-caused injury.
Forest health treatments the application of techniques to influence pest or beneficial organism populations, mitigate damage, or reduce the risk of future damage to forest stands. Treatments can be either proactive (for example, spacing trees to reduce risk of attack by bark beetles) or reactive (for example, spraying insecticides to treat outbreaks of gypsy moth).
Forest interior conditions conditions found deep within forests, away from the effect of open areas. Forest interior conditions include particular microclimates found within large forested areas.
Forest inventory an assessment of forest resources, including digitized maps and a database which describes the location and nature of forest cover (including tree size, age, volume and species composition) as well as a description of other forest values such as soils, vegetation and wildlife features.
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Forest landscape a portion of the land that the eye can see in one glance and in which the forest is the most dominant element.
Forest licence a forest licence allows orderly timber harvest over a portion of a sustained yield management unit, and the timely reforestation of harvested areas according to a strategic resource management plan prepared by a government agency (in Ontario, Ministry of Natural Resources) for each timber supply area. The licence has a set term and is generally replaceable (some are non-replaceable) and operating areas that shift over time. A forest licence specifies an annual allowable cut, requires a management and working plan, and specified management activities.
Forest management the practical application of scientific, economic and social principles to the administration and working of a forest for specified objectives. Particularly, that branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative, economic, legal and social aspects and with the essentially scientific and technical aspects, especially silviculture, protection and forest regulation.
Forest management cycle the phases that occur in the management of a forest including harvesting, site preparation, reforestation, and stand tending.
Forest management plan a general plan for the management of a forest area, usually for a full rotation cycle, including the objectives, prescribed management activitand standards to be employed to achieve specified goals. Commonly supported with more detailed development plans.

See: THE CROWN FOREST SUSTAINABILITY ACT, 1994 Statutes of Ontario, 1994, Chapter 25

Forest mensuration the measurement of volume, growth and development of individual trees and stands, and the various products obtained from them.
Forest officer a person employed by a Provincial Ministry of Forests or Natural Resources who is designated by the minister, chief forester, or regional manager to be a forest officer, through name or title.
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Forest planning model an analytical model (usually computer-based) that successively harvests and grows collections of forest stands over a period of several decades according to specific data and management assumptions.
Forest practice Activities carried out on forest land to facilitate the use of forest resources. Activities include timber harvesting, road construction, road maintenance, road deactivation, silviculture treatments, grazing, fire use, control and suppression, and other similar activities, provided these activities are carried out on Crown forest land, range land, or private land subject to a tree farm licence or woodlot licence by government, a tenure holder or a person engaged in a commercial enterprise (e.g., mining).
Forest profile the range of forest conditions that exists across the landscape, including such factors as timber species, quality, condition and age, location, elevation, topography, accessibility, and economic viability.
Forest renewal the renewal of a tree crop by either natural or artificial means.
Forest resources a term associated with forests and range including, without limitation, timber, water, wildlife, fisheries, recreation, botanical forest products, forage, and biological diversity.
Forest tree breeding the genetic study of trees to solve some specific problem or to produce a specially desired product.
Forest tree improvement the control of parentage combined with other silvicultural activities (such as site preparation or fertilizing) to improve the overall yield and quality of products from forest lands.
Forest type a group of forested areas or stands of similar composition (species, age, height, and stocking) which differentiates it from other such groups.
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Forest type labels the symbols which are used to code information about forest types on a forest cover map, such as site, disturbance, age and height class, species, stocking.
Forest type lines lines on a map or aerial photo outlining forest types.
Forest yield regulation the administrative and technical process which facilitates yield control (regulation), often narrowly interpreted as a process that ensures regular and sustained forest yields.
Forester a person engaged in the profession of forestry. In some countries the term is restricted to those who received formal post-secondary education in forestry or who possess the equivalent qualifications. A forester may or may not be a Registered Professional Forester, which is a legally-recognized title.
Forestry the science, art and practice of managing and using for human benefit the natural resources that occur on and in association with forest lands.
Forestry Act Example: The Forestry Act, Revised Statutes of Ontario, 1990, Chapter F.26
Fragmentation the process of transforming large continuous forest patches into one or more smaller patches surrounded by disturbed areas. This occurs naturally through such agents as fire, landslides, windthrow and insect attack. In managed forests timber harvesting and related activities have been the dominant disturbance agents.
Free-growing young trees that are as high or higher than competing brush vegetation with one metre of free-growing space surrounding their leaders. As defined by legislation, a free growing crop means a crop of trees, the growth of which is not impeded by competition from plants, shrubs or other trees. Silviculture regulations further define the exact parameters that a crop of trees must meet, such as species, density and size, to be considered free growing.
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Free-growing assessment the determination for whether young trees have attained free-growing status.
Free use permits an agreement entered into under a Forest Act, which provides for the cutting and utilization of Crown timber for very specific purposes, free of stumpage assessment.
Fuelbreak an existing barrier or change in fuel type (to one that is less flammable than that surrounding it), or a wide strip of land on which the native vegetation has been modified or cleared, that act as a buffer to fire spread so that fires burning into them can be more readily controlled. Often selected or constructed to protect a high value area from fire.
Fuel management the planned manipulation and/or reduction of living or dead forest fuels for forest management and other land use objectives (such as hazard reduction, silvicultural purposes, wildlife habitat improvement) by prescribed fire, mechanical, chemical or biological means and/or changing stand structure and species composition.
Fuelwood trees used for the production of firewood logs or other wood fuel.
Full bench cut forming the roadway entirely in cut.
Full-tree harvesting a tree harvesting process that includes removing the trunk, branches and in some instances the roots from a forested site. In Canada this process is used to control root diseases.
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