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Glossary of Forestry Terms - S (part 1)


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S
Salmonid a fish of the family Salmonides; eg. salmon and trout.
Salvage harvesting logging operations specifically designed to remove damaged timber (dead or in poor condition) and yield a wood product. Often carried out following fire, insect attack or windthrow.
Sanitation treatment tree removal or modification operations designed to reduce damage caused by forest pests and to prevent their spread.
Sapling a loose term for a young tree no longer a seedling but not yet a pole, about 1 - 2 m high and 2 - 4 cm DBH, typically growing vigorously and without dead bark or more than an occasional dead branch. Also, a young tree having a DBH greater than 1 cm but less than the smallest merchantable diameter.
Sapwood the light-coloured wood that appears on the outer portion of a cross-section of a tree. See Cambium.
Scaling the measuring of lengths and diameters of logs and calculating deductions for defect to determine volume.
Scalping site preparation method which exposes favorable mineral soil for tree seedlings to be planted in.
Scarification a method of seedbed preparation which consists of exposing patches of mineral soil through mechanical action.
Scenic area any visually sensitive area or scenic landscape identified through a visual landscape inventory or planning process.
Screefing removal of herbaceous vegetation and soil organic matter to expose a soil surface for planting.
Second growth a forest or stand that has grown up naturally after removal of a previous stand by fire, harvesting, insect attack or other cause.
Second pass the next entry to harvest timber after green-up (or other recovery objective) occurs.
Secondary channel subordinate channel in a stream reach with more than one channel; minor channel in a floodplain.
Sedimentation the process of subsidence and deposition by gravity of suspended matter carried in water; usually the result of the reduction of water velocity below the point at which it can transport the material in suspended form.
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Seedlot a quantity of cones or seeds having the same species, source, quality and year of collection.
Seed orchard a plantation of specially selected trees that is managed for the production of genetically improved seed.
Seed source the locality where a seedlot was collected. If the stand from which collections were made was exotic, the place where its seed originated is the original seed source.
Seed tree silvicultural system an even-aged silvicultural system in which selected trees (seed trees) are left standing after the initial harvest to provide a seed source for natural regeneration. Seed trees can be left uniformly distributed or in small groups. Although regeneration is generally secured naturally, it may be augmented by planting. Seed trees are often removed once regeneration is established or may be left as reserves.
Seed trees trees selected to be left standing to provide seed sources for natural regeneration. Selection is usually on the basis of good form and vigor, the absence of serious damage by disease, evidence of the ability to produce seed, and wind firmness.
Seedbed in natural regeneration, the soil or forest floor on which seed falls; in nursery practice, a prepared area over which seed is sown.
Seedling a young tree, grown from seed, from the time of germination to the sapling stage, having a DBH equal or less than 1 cm.
Seedlots seed from a particular collection event, either from a single tree collection or a pooling of seed from many trees.
Seepage zone an area on a hillslope or at the slope base where water frequently or continuously springs to the surface.
Selection silvicultural system a silvicultural system that removes mature timber either as single scattered individuals or in small groups at relatively short intervals, repeated indefinitely, where the continual establishment of regeneration is encouraged and an uneven-aged stand is maintained. Group selection removes trees to create openings in a stand less than twice the height of mature trees in the stand.
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Selective logging removal of certain trees in a stand as defined by specific criteria (species, diameter at breast height, or height and form). It is analogous to highgrading. Not to be confused with the selection silvicultural system.
Semi-permanent bridge a bridge having a substantial proportion of its components constructed of steel, concrete, or timber that has been pressure-treated with a suitable preservative.
Senior official a senior official means:
  • district manager or regional manager,
  • a person employed in a senior position in a ministry, who is designated by name or title to be a senior official by the minister of that ministry.
Sensitive areas small areas designated to protect important values during forest and range operations. These areas, established by a district manager in consultation with a designated environment official, guide operations on a site-specific basis and require a combination of forest practices. Sensitive areas will be mapped by resource agencies, and include regionally significant recreational areas, scenic areas with high visual quality objectives, and forest ecosystem networks.
Sensitive areas objectives to adequately manage, protect, and conserve the resources of the area. Sensitive areas may be designated under legislation, through a planning process, or by a district manager and designated environment official (for example, forest ecosystem networks and the setting of visual quality objectives for sensitive scenic areas).
Sensitive resource area an identifiable geographic unit of the forest land base that requires a specific combination of forest practices to adequately protect important resource values.
Sensitive slopes any slope identified as prone to mass wasting.
Sensitive soils forest land areas that have a moderate to very high hazard for soil compaction, erosion, displacement, mass wasting or forest floor displacement.
Sensitive/vulnerable species species identified as "blue listed"; indigenous species that are not threatened but are particularly at risk.
Sensitive watershed a watershed that is used for domestic purposes or that has significant downstream fisheries values, and in which the quality of the water resource is highly responsive to changes in the environment. Typically, such watersheds lack settlement ponds, are relatively small, are located on steep slopes, and have special concerns such as extreme risk of erosion.
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Seral stage any stage of development of an ecosystem from a disturbed, unvegetated state to a climax plant community.
Settlement pond larger than a catchment basin and preferably with lower velocity waterflows that enable suspended sediment to settle before the flow is discharged into a creek.
Shade tolerance the capacity of a tree or plant species to develop and grow in the shade of, and in competition with, other trees or plants.
Shearing as with Christmas trees, to prune the branches to make dense foliage and give the tree a conical shape.
Shelterwood silvicultural system a silvicultural system in which trees are removed in a series of cuts designed to achieve a new even-aged stand under the shelter of remaining trees.
Sidecast moving excavated material onto the downslope side of a temporary access structure, excavated or bladed trail, or landing during its construction.
Sills a single structural member used as a foundation to transfer the loads from the bridge superstructure to the supporting soil.
Silvics the study of the life history, requirements and general characteristics of forest trees and stands in relation to the environment and the practice of silviculture.
Silvicultural system a process that applies silviculture practices, including the tending, harvesting, and replacing of a stand, to produce a crop of timber and other forest products. The system is named by the cutting method with which regeneration is established. The six classical systems are seed tree, shelterwood, selection, and clearcut.
Silviculture the art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health and quality of forests and woodlands. Silviculture entails the manipulation of forest and woodland vegetation in stands and on landscapes to meet the diverse needs and values of landowners and society on a sustainable basis.
Silviculture prescription a site-specific integrated operational plan to carry out one or a series of silviculture treatments.
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Silviculture regime a series of site-specific silviculture treatments planned over time.
Silviculture survey a sampling procedure to determine silvicultural conditions such as planting survival, free-growing status, stocking, etc., leading to management decisions. See Pre-Harvest Silviculture Assessment.
Silviculture treatments activities that ensure the regeneration of young forests on harvested areas and enhance tree growth and improve wood quality in selected stands.
Single tree selection See Selection silvicultural system.
Site an area described or defined by its biotic, climatic, and soil conditions in relation to its capacity to produce vegetation; the smallest planning unit.
Site class the measure of the relative productive capacity of a site for a particular crop or stand, generally based on tree height at a given age and expressed as either good, medium, poor or low.
Site index an expression of the forest site quality of a stand, at a specified age, based either on the site height, or on the top height, which is a more objective measure.
Site preparation the treatment of the soil and ground vegetation to prepare the soil surface as a favorable seedbed for either naturally or artificially disseminated seed or for planted seedlings.
Site productivity the inherent capabilities of a site to produce or provide the commodities or values for which the area will be managed: timber, forage, recreation, fisheries, wildlife, and water.
Site rehabilitation the conversion of the existing unsatisfactory cover on highly productive forest sites to a cover of commercially valuable species
Site sensitivity an assessment of the susceptibility of a site to soil-degrading processes, such as soil compaction, erosion, mass wasting, and forest floor displacement.
Site-specific pertaining to a specific planning unit.
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Situation Report (SITREP) an itemized list and/or written account, usually issued on a daily basis, detailing the status of various fire-related activities. A SITREP generally contains information on fire occurrence and area burned to date, fire suppression resources committed to going fires and resources on standby, number of fires in the various stages of control, fire danger class, fire weather forecast and forest closures (if any).
Skid road a bladed or backhoe-constructed pathway where stumps are removed within the running surface as necessary. Skid roads are suitable only for tracked or rubber-tired skidders bringing trees or logs from the felling site to a landing.
Skid trail a random pathway travelled by ground skidding equipment while moving trees or logs to a landing. A skid trail differs from a skid road in that stumps are cut very low and the ground surface is mainly untouched by the blades of earth moving machines.
Skidder a wheeled or tracked vehicle used for sliding and dragging logs from the stump to a landing.
Skidding the process of sliding and dragging logs from the stump to a landing.
Slash the residue left on the ground as a result of forest and other vegetation being altered by forest practices or other land use activities.
Slide (slope failure) a mass movement process in which slope failure occurs along one or more slip surfaces and in which the unit generally disintegrates into a jumbled mass en route to its depositional site. A debris flow or torrent flow may occur if enough water is present in the mass.
Slope stability susceptibility of a slope to erosion and slides.
Slump a mass movement process in which slope failure occurs on a usually curved slip surface and the unit moves downslope as an intact block, frequently rotating outward. Slumps appear as discrete block movements, often in place, whereas slides usually break up and travel downslope.
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Small-scale forestry in general, non-industrial forestry operations. In most provinces, small-scale forestry operations are carried out by woodlot licensees, Indian bands, municipalities and private landowners.
Smoke management the scheduling and conducting of a prescribed burning program under predetermined burning prescriptions and firing techniques that will minimize the adverse effects of the resulting smoke production in smoke-sensitive areas.
Smoke management the scheduling and conducting of a prescribed burning program under predetermined burning prescriptions and firing techniques that will minimize the adverse effects of the resulting smoke production in smoke-sensitive areas.
Smoke-sensitive area an area that has been identified in which smoke accumulations may cause a safety or public health hazard, or may unreasonably deny aesthetic enjoyment to the public.
Snag a standing dead tree or part of a dead tree from which at least the smaller branches have fallen.
Softwoods cone-bearing trees with needle or scale-like leaves such as Balsam Fir, Eastern White Cedar and Jack Pine.
Soil the naturally occurring, unconsolidated mineral or organic material at the surface of the earth that is capable of supporting plant growth. It extends from the surface to 15 cm below the depth at which properties produced by soil-forming processes can be detected. The soil-forming processes are an interaction between climate, living organisms, and relief acting on soil and soil parent material. Unconsolidated material includes material cemented or compacted by soil-forming processes. Soil may have water covering its surface to a depth of 60 cm or less in the driest part of the year.
Soil disturbance disturbance caused by a forest practice on an area covered by a silviculture prescription or stand management prescription including areas occupied by excavated or bladed trails of a temporary nature, areas occupied by corduroyed trails, compacted areas, and areas of dispersed disturbance.
Soil disturbance hazard an assessment of the susceptibility of a soil to adverse impacts on its productive capability due to soil compaction, soil puddling, surface erosion, mineral soil displacement, mass wasting, or forest floor displacement.
Soil erosion the wearing away of the earth's surface by water, gravity, wind, and ice.
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S - continued

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