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Glossary of Forestry Terms - R


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R
Rain-on-snow events rainstorms that result in large amounts of surface runoff due to the combined effects of heavy rainfall and snow melt. Rapid snow melt is caused by heat supplied from the warm air that is characteristic of intense rainstorms and by heat released during condensation of moisture from the air onto the snow surface.
Range development any practice, treatment or structure designed to achieve plant community, production and integrated resource management goals.
Range enhancement any treatment, development, or structure designed to achieve or maintain the desired plant community.
Range of variability the spectrum of conditions possible in ecosystem composition, structure and function considering both temporal and spatial factors.
Range readiness the stage of plant growth at which grazing may begin under a specific management plan without permanent damage to vegetation or soil.
Range type a defined area with specific physical characteristics, which differs from other areas in its ability to produce distinctive kinds and amounts of vegetation and in its response to management.
Range use plan an operational plan that describes the range and livestock management measures that will be implemented to ensure that range resources are protected and that the management objectives for other identified resource values are achieved.
Rangelands a broad category of land characterized by native plant communities that are often associated with grazing. Rangelands are managed by ecological rather than agronomic methods.
Rapattack a method of initial attack whereby firefighters are transported to the fire in a specially-equipped helicopter, from which they descend during a hover by means of rappelling down a rope fitted with a mechanical device to control the rate of descent. In this way fire crews can be transported to fires which would otherwise pose difficult access problems.
Rappel crew an initial attack crew which rappels from a helicopter to access fires.
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Rate-of-cut the proportion of the watershed area allowed to be cut each year.
Rate of Spread (ROS) the speed at which a fire extends its horizontal dimensions, expressed in terms of distance per unit area of time. Generally thought of in terms of a fire's forward movement or head fire rate of spread, but also applicable to backfire and flank fire rate of spread.
Reach a length of stream channel, (lake or inlet) exhibiting, on average, uniform hydraulic properties and morphology.
Reconnaissance the field examination of a proposed road location to determine its feasibility and possible impact on other resources, and to lay out the proposed centreline.
Recreation any physical or psychological revitalization through the voluntary pursuit of leisure time. Forest recreation includes the use and enjoyment of a forest or wildland setting, including heritage landmarks, developed facilities, and other biophysical features.
Recreation feature a biological, physical, cultural or historic feature that has recreational significance or value.
Recreation feature objective a resource management objective which reflects how a recreational feature or features will be managed, protected, or conserved.
Recreation feature significance the quality, uniqueness, and availability of a recreation feature as classified in the recreation inventory.
Recreation features inventory one component of the Recreation Inventory. The identification, classification, and recording of the types and locations of biophysical recreation and cultural features, existing and potential recreation activities, feature significance and feature sensitivity.
Recreation inventory the identification, classification and recording of recreation features, visual landscapes, Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS), recreation features of rivers and specific point locations of recreation sites, trails, caves etc.
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Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS) a mix of outdoor settings based on remoteness, area size, and evidence of humans, which allows for a variety of recreation activities and experiences. The descriptions used to classify the settings are on a continuum and are described as: rural, roaded resource, semi-primitive motorized, semi-primitive non- motorized, and primitive.
Recreation Opportunity Spectrum objectives resource management objectives in approved integrated resource management plans, reflecting the desired Recreation Opportunity Spectrum setting to provide for specific types of recreation opportunities and experiences.
Recreation resource a recreation feature, a scenic or wilderness feature or setting that has recreational significance or value or a recreation facility.
Recreation site a site and its ancillary facilities developed by a province or municipality for recreation or to protect a recreation resource.
Recreation trail a trail and its ancillary facilities developed by a province or municipality for recreation or to protect a recreation resource.
Recreation value See Recreation resource.
Red-listed species See Threatened or endangered species.
Referral the process by which applications for permits, licences, leases, etc., made to one government agency by an individual or industry are given to another agency for review and comment.
Reforestation the natural or artificial restocking (i.e., planting, seeding) of an area with forest trees. Also called forest regeneration.
Regeneration the renewal of a tree crop through either natural means (seeded on-site from adjacent stands or deposited by wind, birds, or animals) or artificial means (by planting seedlings or direct seeding).
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Regeneration delay the maximum time allowed in a prescription, between the start of harvesting in the area to which the prescription applies, and the earliest date by which the prescription requires a minimum number of acceptable well-spaced trees per hectare to be growing in that area.
Regeneration Performance Assessment (RPA) a sampling survey carried out to collect field data on the height growth, competition, and stocking of young stands ( usually 5-10 years).
Regeneration survey scarried out to determine the initial restocking of a site. It is used to describe the number of trees on a site that have reached acceptable standards.
Regional plan the second level of planning in any Forest Ministries' hierarchical planning system. The regional forestry plan contains forest management alternatives based on a detailed analysis of timber supply within the region. Regional priorities for integrated use are identified and taken into account in setting production goals for timber, range, and forest recreation.
Regional Resource Management Committee (RRMC) a committee comprised of senior regional representatives of government agencies responsible for or affected by resource management decisions who meet to consider resource management problems.
Regionally important species the regionally identified sensitive/vulnerable (blue-listed) species and those species not at risk but which require identification and protection of habitat critical at specific periods of their life cycle, and which are thus essential to the maintenance of their populations (e.g., moose, deer).
Registered Professional Forester (RPF) a person registered under a Foresters Act, who performs or directs works, services, or undertakings that require specialized knowledge, training, and experience in forestry.
Regulated unit a Special Sale Area (SSA) describes a Crown area not under sustained yield management on which timber may be sold at the discretion of the Minister. It is not planned that the allowable annual cut on these units will be maintained in perpetuity.
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Reinventory he complete restratification of an area on recent, mid-scale aerial photographs based on extensive field work.
Release freeing a tree or group of trees from more immediate competition by cutting or otherwise eliminating growth that is overtopping or closely surrounding them.
Remediation measures undertaken in respect to an area of land to remedy contravention of a Forest Practices Code.
Remote Automatic Weather Station (RAWS) a weather station at which the services of an observer are not required. A RAWS unit measures selected weather elements automatically and is equipped with telemetry apparatus for transmitting the electronically recorded data via radio, satellite or by a landline communication system at predetermined times on a user-requested basis.
Remote sensing any data or information acquisition technique that utilizes airborne techniques and/or equipment to determine the characteristics of an area.
Reportable erosion event a natural or man-made disturbance to the forest land base which is causing or will likely cause substantial environmental impacts, or which is a threat to life or property.
Reserve an area of forest land that, by law or policy, is not available for harvesting. Areas of land and water set aside for ecosystem protection, outdoor and tourism values, preservation of rare species, gene pool, wildlife protection etc.
Reserve zone the inner portion of a riparian management area situated adjacent to a stream, lake, or wetland and established to conserve and maintain the productivity of aquatic and riparian ecosystems when harvesting is not permitted.
Reserved trees trees specifically reserved from harvesting and often referenced in Pre Harvest Silviculture Prescriptions or cutting authorities or by map notations.
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Reserves the retention of live or standing dead trees, pole size or larger, on site following harvest for purposes other than regeneration. Reserves can be uniformly distributed as single trees or left in small groups, and they can be used with any silvicultural system.
Residual basal area the basal area per hectare of acceptable trees left standing after harvest.
Residual stand structure the age class or height structure of the stand or remaining trees after harvesting.
Residuals (residual trees) trees left standing after harvesting.
Residue the volume of timber left on the harvested area which meets or exceeds the size requirements but is below the log grade requirements of the minimum utilization standards in the cutting authority. It is part of the allowable annual cut for cut control.
Resilience the ability of an ecosystem to maintain diversity, integrity and ecological processes following disturbance.
Resistance to control the relative ease of establishing and holding a fireguard and/or securing a control line as determined by the difficulty of control and resistance to fireguard construction.
Resource features localized resource values or sites of special interest, such as caves, raptor-nesting trees, mineral licks, heritage sites, and recreation trails.
Resource folio a collection of resource capability and forest inventory maps, other resource data, interpretations, and management objectives for each resource sector. General prescriptions are developed to achieve the stated integrated use of objectives. A resource folio forms the basis for the timber licensee's development plan or working plan.
Resource industry an industry based on the primary resources obtained from agriculture, fisheries, forestry or mining.
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Resource Management Zone (RMZ) an area established by a chief forester in accordance with any policy direction from Cabinet or designated ministers. Resource management zones are used to implement broad land use policy, as provided in land and resource management plans or other Cabinet-level directives. An RMZ might include a major travel corridor which has scenic values or an area managed for intensive timber production such as Crown land in a provincial forest and private land in a tree farm licence or woodlot licence that must be managed and used in accordance with the requirements of Forest Practices legislation.
Resource Management Zone objectives to provide strategic direction on a regional or subregional scale (1:100 000 to 1:250 000 map scale). The chief forester is authorized by designated ministers to establish RMZs and associated objectives, in consultation with other resource agencies.
Resource values products or commodities associated with forest lands and largely dependent on ecological processes. These include, but are not limited to, water quality and quantity, forage, fish, wildlife, timber, recreation, energy, minerals, and cultural and heritage resources.
Restoration the return of an ecosystem or habitat to its original community structure, natural complement of species and natural functions.
Retention retaining or saving a portion of the original stand in a cluster or clump.
Retention visual quality objective a visual landscape strategy derived from landscape analysis which applies to areas of high landscape value (for example, continuously forested or steep slopes facing important viewpoints or recreation use areas, foreground areas adjacent to important viewpoints or recreation use areas, and certain shorelines). Forest management activities may be present, but should not be noticed by the average viewer. Some visual change may be discernible, but should not be recognized as being different from existing natural features in the landscape.
Right-of-way the strip of land over which a power line, railway line, road, etc., extends.
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Riparian an area of land adjacent to a stream, river, lake or wetland that contains vegetation that, due to the presence of water, is distinctly different from the vegetation of adjacent upland areas.
Riparian Management Area (RMA) a classified area of specified width surrounding or adjacent to streams, lakes, riparian areas, and wetlands. The RMA includes, in many cases, adjacent upland areas. It extends from the top of the streambank (bank full height) or from the edge of a riparian area or wetland or the natural boundary of a lake outward to the greater of: 1) the specified RMA distance, 2) the top of the inner gorge, or 3) the edge of the flood plain. Where a riparian area or wetland occurs adjacent to a stream or lake, the RMA is measured from the outer edge of the wetland.
Riparian management zone the area within and adjacent to riparian and other wetlands required to meet the structural and functional attributes of riparian ecosystems.
Riprap an apron of coarse rock installed over the fillslope to prevent erosion.
Risk the probability of an undesirable event occurring within a specified period of time. With regard to insect populations, risk involves components to evaluate the likelihood of an outbreak, the likelihood of trees being attacked (susceptibility) or the likelihood of trees being damaged (vulnerability). In fire prevention, risk involves those things or events that cause fires to start (including the physical igniting agents and people).
Risk rating (assessment) the process of identifying the degree of risk that timber harvesting imposes on adjacent and downslope social, economic, and forest resource values. The severity of each potential hazard and the magnitude of the potential consequences that correspond to each hazard provide the overall risk associated with harvesting a site.
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Road permit an agreement entered into under Part 8 of the Forest Act to allow for the construction or modification of a forest road to facilitate access to timber planned for harvest.
Rotation the planned number of years between the formation or regeneration of a tree crop or stand and its final cutting at a specified stage of maturity. Can be based on physical, biological, pathological or economic criteria.
Rotation age the age at which a stand is considered mature and ready for harvesting.
Roundwood sections of tree stems, with or without bark. Includes logs, bolts, posts, and pilings.
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