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Ulf T. Runesson

Faculty of Natural
Resources Management,
Lakehead University

955 Oliver Road,
Thunder Bay, Ontario,
Canada P7B 5E1

     (807) 343-8784

     (807) 346-7769


Edge Distance The distance from the edge of a member to the centre of the nearest fastening.
End Distance The distance measured parallel to the axis of a piece from the centre of a fastening to the square-cut end of the member (if the end of the member is not square-cut, a formula is used to calculate the end distance).
Equilibrium Moisture Content The moisture content at which wood neither gains nor loses moisture when surrounded by air at a specified relative humidity and temperature.
Extender A substance added to an adhesive to reduce the amount of primary binder required per unit area.
Extender Pigment A coating additive which imparts special properties (for example. to give exterior varnish protection from ultra-violet light degradation).

Fibreboard A broad term including materials of widely varying densities manufactured by pressing wood fibres into panels sometimes used for sheathing.
Fibre Saturation Point The moisture content of wood, usually around 25-30 percent, at which the cell walls are saturated and the cell cavities are free of water.
Figure The pattern produced in a wood surface by annual growth rings, rays, knots, or irregular colouration.
Filler A substance used to fill the holes and irregularities in planed or sanded surfaces to decrease the porosity of the surface before applying finish coatings. As applied to adhesives, a filler is a substance added to an adhesive to improve its working strength or other properties.
Fine Finish Coatings of paint, varnish, lacquer, wax or other material applied to high quality wood surfaces to protect and enhance their durability and appearance.
Fine Woodwork Products such as trim, panelling used for architectural woodwork to provide a high quality decorative appearance to rooms.
Fingerjoint An end joint made up of several meshing wedges or fingers of wood bonded together with an adhesive. Fingers are sloped and may be cut parallel to either the wide or narrow face of the piece.
Factored Load The product of a specified load and its applicable load factor as used in Limit States Design.
Factored Resistance The product of resistance and its applicable resistance factor as applied in Limit States Design.
Fibre A long narrow, tapering wood cell closed at both ends.
Fire Compartment An enclosed space in a building that is separated from all other parts of the building by enclosing construction. This provides a fire separation which has a required fire-resistance rating.
Fire-Resistance Rating The time in hours or minutes that a material or assembly of materials will withstand the passage of flame and the transmission of heat when exposed to fire under specified conditions of test and performance.
Fire-Retardant A chemical or preparation of chemicals used to reduce flammability or to retard the spread of a fire over the surtace.
Fire-Retardant Coating A coating applied by brush, roller, or sprayer which reduces the burning characteristics of wood surfaces.
Fire-Retardant Treated Wood Wood or a wood product that has had its surface-burning characteristics, such as flame- spread, rate of fuel contribution and density of smoke developed, reduced by pressure treating with fire retardant chemicals.
Fire Separation A construction assembly that acts as a barrier against the spread of fire. (A fire separation may or may not have a fire-resistance rating.)
Firewall A type of fire separation of noncombustible construction that subdivides a building or separates adjoining buildings to resist the spread of fire and that has a fire-resistance rating as prescribed in the codes and has structural stability to remain intact under fire conditions for the required fire rated time.
Flame-Spread Rating An index or classification indicating the extent of spread of flame on the surface of a material, or an assembly of materials, as determined in a standard fire test as prescribed in the building code.
Flaking Lifting of the paint from the underlying surface in the form of flakes or scales.

Girder A large or principle beam used to support concentrated loads at isolated points along its length.
Glulam Structural wood product made by bonding together laminations of dimension lumber.
Glulam Rivet A nail-like oval shaped fastener used in combination with predrilled steel plates to connect glulam members (approved for use in Canada and the U.S.).
Gloss The degree of reflection of a coating film. Paints, varnishes, and lacquers having a lot of reflection are said to be glossy, while those having a low level of reflection are said to be flat.
Grade A classification of lumber or other wood products based on criteria of quality such as natural characteristics and strength.
Grade stamp A stamp placed on lumber to denote its grade.
Grain The direction, size, arrangement, appearance or quality of the fibre in wood or veneer.
Grain, Close-Grained Wood Structure of some hardwoods, such as birch and maple, having narrow, inconspicuous annual rings with little difference in pore size between springwood (early wood) and summerwood (late wood).
Grain, Cross A pattern in wood in which the fibre and other longitudinal elements deviate from a line parallel to the sides of the piece as a result of sawing or as a result of inconsistent grain direction as a growth characteristic.
Grain, Edge (quarter-sawn, quarter-cut) Terms referring to timber or veneer cut in a plan approximately at right angles to the annual rings.
Grain, Flat (flat-sawn, plain-sawn) Lumber that has been sawed parallel to the length of the log and approximately tangent to the growth rings.
Grain, Open-Grained Wood Structure of some hardwoods such as oak, chestnut and ash in which there is a distinctive difference in the pore sizes between springwood (early wood) and summerwood (late wood). The term coarse is also sometimes used to describe open grain woods.
Grain, Spiral-Grain An arrangement of the fibres in a piece of timber or veneer which results from their growth in a spiral direction around the trunk of the tree.
Green (unseasoned) Freshly sawed lumber, or lumber that has received no intentional drying. Wood that has become completely wet after immersion in water would not be considered green, but may be said to be in the green condition.

Hardboard A panel manufactured primarily from interfolded wood fibres consolidated under heat and pressure in a hot press and used, for example, in the manufacture of siding products.
Hardwood (deciduous) Trees One of the botanical groups of trees that have broad leaves, in contrast to the conifers or softwoods. The term does not necessarily refer to the actual hardness of the wood.
Header A single member composed of two or more wood members, securely fastened together and used to increase load carrying capability at wall or floor or widow openings.
Heartwood The wood extending from the true centre to the sapwood, and whose cells no longer participate in the life processes of the tree. Hearfwood may contain gums, resins, and other materials that usually make it darker and more decay resistant than sapwood.
Heavy Timber Construction A type of combustible construction in which a degree of fire safety is attained by placing limitations on the sizes of wood structural members and on thickness and composition of wood floors and roofs and by the avoidance of concealed spaces under floors and roofs.
Heelt Point on truss at which the top and bottom chords intersect.
Honeycomb A cellular separation in the interior of a wood piece, usually along the wood grain, a result of internal stress. It normally occurs during kiln drying, particularly in white or red oak, when too much heat is applied too rapidly.

Importance Factor A factor applied to factored loads, other than dead load, to take into account the consequence of collapse as related to the use and occupancy of the structure, as in Limit States Design.
Intumescence The swelling of a fire-retardant coating when heated, resulting in the formation of low-density film which provides a degree of surface flame-spread resistance.

Joint, Butt An end joint formed by abutting the squared ends of two pieces.
Joint, End A joint made by bonding two pieces of wood together end to end, usually by finger or scarf joint.
Joint, Scarf An end joint formed by joining with adhesive the ends of two pieces that have ben tapered or bevelled to form sloping plane surfaces.
Joist One of a series of parallel beams used to support floor and ceiling loads, supported in turn by larger beams, girders, or bearing walls.

Knot That portion of a branch or limb that has been surrounded by subsequent growth of the stem. The shape of the knot as it appears on a lumber surface depends on the angle of the cut relative to the long axis of the knot.
Knot, Loose A knot which is not held firmly in place by growth or position and which cannot be relied upon to remain in place.
Knot, Pin A knot that is not more than 12.5mm (1/2") in diameter.
Knot, Sound A knot that is solid across its face, at least as hard as the surrounding wood, and shows no indication of decay.

Last Modified: January 20, 2014 20:01:06. 
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