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Edge Distance The distance from the edge of a member to the centre of the nearest fastening.
End Distance The distance measured parallel to the axis of a piece from the centre of a fastening to the square-cut end of the member (if the end of the member is not square-cut, a formula is used to calculate the end distance).
Equilibrium Moisture Content The moisture content at which wood neither gains nor loses moisture when surrounded by air at a specified relative humidity and temperature.
Extender A substance added to an adhesive to reduce the amount of primary binder required per unit area.
Extender Pigment A coating additive which imparts special properties (for example. to give exterior varnish protection from ultra-violet light degradation).
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Fibreboard A broad term including materials of widely varying densities manufactured by pressing wood fibres into panels sometimes used for sheathing.
Fibre Saturation Point The moisture content of wood, usually around 25-30 percent, at which the cell walls are saturated and the cell cavities are free of water.
Figure The pattern produced in a wood surface by annual growth rings, rays, knots, or irregular colouration.
Filler A substance used to fill the holes and irregularities in planed or sanded surfaces to decrease the porosity of the surface before applying finish coatings. As applied to adhesives, a filler is a substance added to an adhesive to improve its working strength or other properties.
Fine Finish Coatings of paint, varnish, lacquer, wax or other material applied to high quality wood surfaces to protect and enhance their durability and appearance.
Fine Woodwork Products such as trim, panelling used for architectural woodwork to provide a high quality decorative appearance to rooms.
Fingerjoint An end joint made up of several meshing wedges or fingers of wood bonded together with an adhesive. Fingers are sloped and may be cut parallel to either the wide or narrow face of the piece.
Factored Load The product of a specified load and its applicable load factor as used in Limit States Design.
Factored Resistance The product of resistance and its applicable resistance factor as applied in Limit States Design.
Fibre A long narrow, tapering wood cell closed at both ends.
Fire Compartment An enclosed space in a building that is separated from all other parts of the building by enclosing construction. This provides a fire separation which has a required fire-resistance rating.
Fire-Resistance Rating The time in hours or minutes that a material or assembly of materials will withstand the passage of flame and the transmission of heat when exposed to fire under specified conditions of test and performance.
Fire-Retardant A chemical or preparation of chemicals used to reduce flammability or to retard the spread of a fire over the surtace.
Fire-Retardant Coating A coating applied by brush, roller, or sprayer which reduces the burning characteristics of wood surfaces.
Fire-Retardant Treated Wood Wood or a wood product that has had its surface-burning characteristics, such as flame- spread, rate of fuel contribution and density of smoke developed, reduced by pressure treating with fire retardant chemicals.
Fire Separation A construction assembly that acts as a barrier against the spread of fire. (A fire separation may or may not have a fire-resistance rating.)
Firewall A type of fire separation of noncombustible construction that subdivides a building or separates adjoining buildings to resist the spread of fire and that has a fire-resistance rating as prescribed in the codes and has structural stability to remain intact under fire conditions for the required fire rated time.
Flame-Spread Rating An index or classification indicating the extent of spread of flame on the surface of a material, or an assembly of materials, as determined in a standard fire test as prescribed in the building code
Flaking Lifting of the paint from the underlying surface in the form of flakes or scales.
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Girder A large or principle beam used to support concentrated loads at isolated points along its length.
Glulam Structural wood product made by bonding together laminations of dimension lumber.
Glulam Rivet A nail-like oval shaped fastener used in combination with predrilled steel plates to connect glulam members (approved for use in Canada and the U.S.).
Gloss The degree of reflection of a coating film. Paints, varnishes, and lacquers having a lot of reflection are said to be glossy, while those having a low level of reflection are said to be flat.
Grade A classification of lumber or other wood products based on criteria of quality such as natural characteristics and strength.
Grade stamp A stamp placed on lumber to denote its grade.
Grain The direction, size, arrangement, appearance or quality of the fibre in wood or veneer.
Grain, Close-Grained Wood Structure of some hardwoods, such as birch and maple, having narrow, inconspicuous annual rings with little difference in pore size between springwood (early wood) and summerwood (late wood).
Grain, Cross A pattern in wood in which the fibre and other longitudinal elements deviate from a line parallel to the sides of the piece as a result of sawing or as a result of inconsistent grain direction as a growth characteristic.
Grain, Edge (quarter-sawn, quarter-cut) Terms referring to timber or veneer cut in a plan approximately at right angles to the annual rings.
Grain, Flat (flat-sawn, plain-sawn) Lumber that has been sawed parallel to the length of the log and approximately tangent to the growth rings.
Grain, Open-Grained Wood Structure of some hardwoods such as oak, chestnut and ash in which there is a distinctive difference in the pore sizes between springwood (early wood) and summerwood (late wood). The term coarse is also sometimes used to describe open grain woods.
Grain, Spiral-Grain An arrangement of the fibres in a piece of timber or veneer which results from their growth in a spiral direction around the trunk of the tree.
Green (unseasoned) Freshly sawed lumber, or lumber that has received no intentional drying. Wood that has become completely wet after immersion in water would not be considered green, but may be said to be in the green condition.
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